This category is non-Chinese northern and western kingdoms, including Liao (Khitan Turks), Jin (Jurched) who conquered northern China, Xi (Western) Xia (Tangut, their civil administration had some proto-Marxist characteristics, and the Mongols before Chingis Khan. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, built by war, mishandled peacetime and broke up in the face of native rebellion.

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