CHINA CHUN XI TONG BAO iron 2 cash year 16 (1189 AD) Tongan mint


CHINA, SOUTHERN SONG Dynasty, 1127-1280 AD, 2 cash, year 16 (1189 AD), Tongan mint, Anhui, Obverse: CHUN XI TONG BAO, orthodox script, Reverse: TONG SHI LIU right-left, iron, 28mm, 6.77g, H17.308, H=7, scarce, F/VG

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Chun Xi was the second year title of Emperor Song Xiaozong.

Song Xiaozong succeeded when his father abdicated, a bloodless succession, rare in the world. He too abdicated at the end of his reign.

Pressure from Turks, Tungus, and other peoples to the North grew until the Song felt obliged to retreat to the south. The Song paid tribute to the northern invaders, and continued their traditions in reduced circumstances until the coming of the Mongols.

The oldest Chinese coins are at least as old as the earliest Greek coins. The Chinese coinage system differed from other systems in two ways. It was monometallic, only bronze coins circulated in general commerce. Gold and silver were treated as commodities. And the manufacturing method was by casting in moulds rather than by striking heated solid planchets. The main reference I use in attributing and describing these coins is the book: Chinese Cast Coins, by David Hartill.