CHINA DA YUAN TONG BAO (Mongol) 10 cash (1310-11 AD)


CHINA, YUAN Dynasty, 1260-1368 AD, 10 cash, no date (1310-11 AD), Obverse: DA YUAN TONG BAO (Mongol), bronze, 41mm, 24.78g, H19.46, S1099, nailmark on reverse, aVF

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Nailmarks are unusual on Yuan Dynasty coins.

In the time of Emperor Wuzong the Mongol Empire was divided and fighting with itself. Financial problems got worse, use of paper money increased.

The Yuan Dynasty was proclaimed by Kubilai Khan , when he controlled most of China. He completed the annihilation of the Song government a few years later. He attempted to expand into neighboring territories, with some successes (Burma) and more failures (Vietnam, Japan, Java). The finances were never very good. They used a lot of paper money without backing.

This category is non-Chinese northern and western kingdoms, including Liao (Khitan Turks), Jin (Jurched) who conquered northern China, Xi (Western) Xia (Tangut, their civil administration had some proto-Marxist characteristics), and the Mongols before Chingis Khan. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, built by war, mishandled peacetime and broke up in the face of native rebellion.

The oldest Chinese coins are at least as old as the earliest Greek coins. The Chinese coinage system differed from other systems in two ways. It was monometallic, only bronze coins circulated in general commerce. Gold and silver were treated as commodities. And the manufacturing method was by casting in moulds rather than by striking heated solid planchets. The main reference I use in attributing and describing these coins is the book: Chinese Cast Coins, by David Hartill.