CHINA JIA DING TONG BAO iron 2 cash year 5 (1212 AD) Hanyang mint


CHINA, SOUTHERN SONG Dynasty, 1127-1280 AD, 2 cash, year 5 (1212 AD), Hanyang mint, Hubei, Obverse: JIA DING TONG BAO, Reverse: HAN WU (#5) top-bottom, iron, 26mm, 3.55g, H17.592, S925, nailmark rev., lighter than usual, F/VG

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Ning Zong liked to spend his time with poets and artists and neglected a war with the Jin state, which, in consequence, went badly. During this period the Mongols conquered the Jin state. It was the Jin who had forced the Song out of northern China.

Pressure from Turks, Tungus, and other peoples to the North grew until the Song felt obliged to retreat to the south. The Song paid tribute to the northern invaders, and continued their traditions in reduced circumstances until the coming of the Mongols.

The oldest Chinese coins are at least as old as the earliest Greek coins. The Chinese coinage system differed from other systems in two ways. It was monometallic, only bronze coins circulated in general commerce. Gold and silver were treated as commodities. And the manufacturing method was by casting in moulds rather than by striking heated solid planchets. The main reference I use in attributing and describing these coins is the book: Chinese Cast Coins, by David Hartill.