CHINA MING Dynasty 2 cash 1628-44 AD CHONG ZHEN TONG BAO dot top reverse


CHINA, MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 AD, 2 cash, no date (1628-44 AD), Obverse: CHONG ZHEN TONG BAO, 5-stroke radical ZHEN, 1-dot closed head TONG, Reverse: big dot top, brass, 29mm, 6.51g, H20.305, S1282 illus., KM-A101, VG-F

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The dot is called “Sun” from a mythical point of view, and denotes yang, male, hot, projective, etc., as the crescent is the “Moon,” and points to yin, female, cool, receptive, etc.

Chong Zhen was the last Ming Emperor. A shortage of silver developed as a result of changes in international commerce. This caused inflation in China as the value of silver rose relative to copper cash. Taxes had to be paid in silver, farmers were driven off the land, famines developed, anarchy spread. Foreigners, the Manchus in particular, intervened.

While Mongol princes were fighting with each other a peasant rebellion developed in the south. One of the peasant leaders became the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Ming became very prosperous, engaged in world trade. started overseas colonies, until one day an unfortunate horoscope caused the Emperor to freak out and close down the country. Economic difficulties produced a number of rebellions at the end, coins being made by rebels and local loyalists.

The oldest Chinese coins are at least as old as the earliest Greek coins. The Chinese coinage system differed from other systems in two ways. It was monometallic, only bronze coins circulated in general commerce. Gold and silver were treated as commodities. And the manufacturing method was by casting in moulds rather than by striking heated solid planchets. The main reference I use in attributing and describing these coins is the book: Chinese Cast Coins, by David Hartill.