CHINA ZHI HE ZHONG BAO iron 3 cash Tongzhou


CHINA, NORTHERN SONG Dynasty, 960-1127 AD, 3 cash, no date (1054-55 AD), Tongzhou mint, Shaanxi mint, Obverse: ZHI HE ZHONG BAO, orthodox script, arranged top-bottom-right-left, Reverse: TONG top, iron, H16.145A, S-nl, FD-nl, Hartill= 3, very rare, aG/VG

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Sixth year title of Song Renzong. They were dealing with an internal rebellion and there were always problems on all of the borders but the economy was strong and the coinage was prolific.

The Song Dynasty was established by a rebel general who overcame his Later Zhou employer and went on to conquer the rest of the country. Military reforms produced two centuries of stability but administrative costs reduced efficiency and lack of preparedness invited invasion by the Jin from the north while the Song moved their capital to the south.

The oldest Chinese coins are at least as old as the earliest Greek coins. The Chinese coinage system differed from other systems in two ways. It was monometallic only bronze coins circulated in general commerce. Gold and silver were treated as commodities. And the manufacturing method was by casting in moulds rather than by striking heated solid planchets. The main reference I use in attributing and describing these coins is the book: Chinese Cast Coins by David Hartill.