GERMANY, BRUNSWICK-LUNEBURG-CALENBERG-HANNOVER, Georg III, 1760-1814, 1 pfennig, 1753 IBH, Obverse: wildman, copper, KM215.2, last digit of date is probably 3 over 2, cleaned XF

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Braunschweig (Brunswick) is in northwestern Germany. It was made a Duchy (province) of the Holy Roman Empire in 1235. The Dukes wove themselves into the European dynastic system. Luneburg is a town that produced most of the salt used in northern Germany, which made it rich enough to join the Hanseatic League of commercial towns. Changing circumstances destroyed the salt trade. The town was attached to Hanover in 1708. Calenburg in now in Hanover. It carried various rulers on its back over the centuries. Hanover is in Lower Saxony in northern Germany. The Brunswick dukes produced a line based in Hanover that supplied several kings of England.

The political arrangements that resulted in the nations of modern Europe began to emerge out of anarchy starting in the 7th century AD or so. Europe, for our purposes stretches from Greenland to somewhere in Russia. Collectors of Europe would likely include Russia. Collectors of Asia, even though about 2/3 of Russia is in Asia, probably not.

By “Modern World Coins” we mean here, generally, the round, flat, shiny metal objects that people have used for money and still do. “Modern,” though, varies by location. There was some other way they were doing their economies, and then they switched over to “modern coins,” then they went toward paper money, now we’re all going toward digital, a future in which kids look at a coin and say “What’s that?” We’ll say: “We used to use those to buy things.” Kids will ask “How?” The main catalog reference is the Standard Catalog of World Coins, to which the KM numbers refer.