GHAZNAVID Khusrau Malik 1160-1186 AD jital


GHAZNAVID, Khusrau Malik, 1160-1186 AD, jital, no date, Lahore mint, Obverse: legend, Reverse: stylized bull, billon, 16mm, 2.96g, T-119.1, VF

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The reference for this is “Jitals,” by Robert Tye.

Abu Al-Muzaffar Khusru (Khusrau) Malik was the last Ghaznavid ruler. At the beginning of his reign a band of Oghuz Turks drove him out of his western territories. He moved east to Lahore, from where he campaigned further east. He was captured and imprisoned by the Ghorids, and his territory incorporated into their domains.

The Ghaznavid dynasty started out with a Turkish slave soldier of the Samanids, who was made governor of southeast Afghanistan. He broke away from his master and extended his territory into Pakistan. Ghaznavid governing methods were predatory and crude, and when they were defeated at the end the people were happy.

The term “Islamic coins” refers to coins made by Muslim governments from the time of the first caliphs to an end point in time that varies with the particular country being considered, but is generally some time from the 17th to 19th century. There is a geographic exclusion: India and points east are generally considered separately. The main reference used here is “Checklist of Islamic Coins,” by Stephen Album.