JUCHID (GOLDEN HORDE) Toqtamish 1378-1395 AD dirham


JUCHID (GOLDEN HORDE), Toqtamish, 1378-1395 AD, dirham, 79x AH (138x AD), New Saray mint, silver, 16mm, 1.41g, A2048, VF

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The Golden Horde broke into rival units according to normal Mongol dynastic process. Toqtamish (Tokhtamish, etc.) won out over his rivals with the help of the great conqueror Tamerlane. He attempted to break free of his benefactor, who invaded and crushed him, turning the Golden Horde into a possession of the Timurids.

The Mongol Empire was family based, with sub-domains going to various descendants. In the initial phase the leaders were heads of major military divisions, known as “ordu” (hordes). The leader of the “Golden Horde” was Batu, son of Juchi, grandson of Chingis. The Golden Horde at its height controlled a region that extended from the Balkans to Afghanistan, from the Caspian Sea deep into central Russia.

The term “Islamic coins” refers to coins made by Muslim governments from the time of the first caliphs to an end point in time that varies with the particular country being considered, but is generally some time from the 17th to 19th century. There is a geographic exclusion: India and points east are generally considered separately. The main reference used here is “Checklist of Islamic Coins,” by Stephen Album.