KOSALA JANAPADA circa 525-465 BC silver punchmarked karshapana


KOSALA, circa 525-465 BC, punchmarked karshapana, no date, Obverse: triskeles design & other marks, Reverse: 5 small marks, silver, 21mm, 2.99g, bits of crust, VF

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Kosala was an ancient kingdom in what is now the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh State in northern India.

Bureaucratic governing systems emerged when people who didn’t know each other personally were interacting in ways other than war. Coins were developed to keep track of the mutual satisfaction factor in trades. In northern India bureaucratic governments emerged before the 6th century BC. They were family based. Families of a certain size we like to term “tribal.” In northen India the earliest “tribal” states are called “janapada.”

The earliest ancient Indian coins were the “bent bar” punchmarked silvers of the Achaemenid Persians occupying Gandhara in northwest Pakistan. By the 3rd century BC coins were in general use in most of India and Ceylon, and in subsequent centuries struck round coins in gold, silver, and copper came into use throughout the subcontinent and beyond to Southeast Asia and Pacific islands to Java and beyond.