PAKISTAN, INDUS, c. 2000-1000 BC, bronze seal ring


PAKISTAN, Balochistan, INDUS, c. 2000-1000 BC, seal ring, cross, triangles in angles, bronze, 20x21x12mm, 39.54g, F

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The development of cities allowed a social stratification of more important and less important people into more groups than “rulers” and “ruled.” The existence of seals implies contracts attested to and items tagged by their owners.

Three ways that bronze artifacts were put in the ground for people to find later: people burying the dead with their stuff, people put them in the ground, thinking they’d be back to retrieve it but didn’t, people lost stuff. Since bronze was valuable, people reused it when the thing broke, rather than throw stuff away.

Humans started building cities, meaning a group of more than one family living in a planned and administered community, in the late neolithic period, about 10,000 years ago, roughly. The earliest known cities of South Asia (India-Pakistan-etc.) were Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, now in Pakistan. We call the culture that built those cities “Indus.” There was no writing, but there was fine pottery, polished and carved stone, and metal work. Lots of it. They were prosperous for many centuries. They didn’t have horses, but they had cattle, and some of them did yoga.

Over the decades I’ve been selling collectibles my market has been about 97% coins, 2% paper money, 1% everything else.