SCOTLAND Alexander III 1249-86 penny


SCOTLAND, Alexander III, 1249-86, penny, no date (circa 1280-86), uncertain mint, Obverse: crowned head L, scepter before, ALEXANDER DEI GRA, Reverse: long cross pattee, four stars with incuse circles in center around and 24 points, REX SCOTORVM, unbarred E and C, silver, 19mm, 1.26g, S5052, dark VF

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Scotland, the northern part of the island of Britain, was independent until 1707, and had its own coinage. Unlike the English, who mostly refused to inflate their coinage, Scottish coins were progressively debased over centuries.

The political arrangements that resulted in the nations of modern Europe began to emerge out of local autonomy starting in the 7th century AD or so. Europe, for our purposes, stretches from Greenland to somewhere in Russia. Collectors of Europe would likely include Russia. Collectors of Asia, even though about 2/3 of Russia is in Asia, probably not.

By “Modern World Coins” we mean here, generally, the round, flat, shiny metal objects that people have used for money and still do. “Modern,” though, varies by location. There was some other way they were doing their economies, and then they switched over to “modern coins,” then they went toward paper money, now we’re all going toward digital, a future in which kids look at a coin and say “What’s that?” We’ll say: “We used to use those to buy things.” Kids will ask “How?” The main catalog reference is the Standard Catalog of World Coins, to which the KM numbers refer.