UMAYYAD Arab-Byzantine bronze follis/fals circa 693-697 AD


UMAYYAD, fals, no date, circa 693-697 AD, Obverse: standing emperor, KAΛAON on left, Arabic HIMS on right, Reverse: uncial M, officina “Δ” attached below, ankh-like modification of Chi-Rho monogram above, EMH-CHC right-left, Arabic TAYB in exergue, copper, 18-20mm, 3.7g, A3516, W33v1, porous,G/VG

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The founder of the Umayyad dynasty was governor of Syria at the time of the war that established the Sunni-Shia split. At that point Muslims were in military occupation of territory from Egypt to Afghanistan. The Umayyads ruled for about 100 years, never established a peaceful succession method, ruled mostly badly, were overthrown by a popular revolutionary movement.

The term “Islamic coins” refers to coins made by Muslim governments from the time of the first caliphs to an end point in time that varies with the particular country being considered, but is generally some time from the 17th to 19th century. There is a geographic exclusion: India and points east are generally considered separately. The main reference used here is “Checklist of Islamic Coins,” by Stephen Album.